AMD Book

Latest articles


Since the begining of the last century much attention has been focused on tumour vascularization.

Warren Lewis(1), in 1922, and Gordon Ide, in 1939(2), had already considered the hypothesis of synthesis of a vascular growth factor by tumour cells.

Synthesis of a vascular growth factor in the retina was proposed for the first time in 1948(3), in diabetic eyes by Isaac Michelson.


In recent years, new treatment modalities such as photodynamic therapy and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections have been added to the treatment armamentarium for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology allows the acquisition of cross-sectional images of the retina with semihistologic resolution.

It permits to define the location and nature of the changes in the retina and adjacent structures and objectively evaluates the thickness of the retina and surrounding structures.

These capabilities allow detection of newly emerging fluid and/or intraretinal or subretinal tissue and tissue below the retinal pigment epithelium
c. Neurosensory Retinal Detachment (RPE).


The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) revolutionized retinal imaging by providing a fast, simple, and noninvasive method to assess retinal structure at a microscopic level.(1)

AMD Book


The most updated clinical and scientific information about the treatment of AMD: Age-related macular degeneration

Silva, Rufino, MD, PhD

Department of Ophthalmology
Coimbra University Hospital. Faculty of Medicine. Coimbra. Portugal

Invited Professor of Ophthalmology. University of Coimbra.
Coimbra, Portugal.

Bandello, Francesco, MD, FEBO
Professor and Chairman
Department of Ophthalmology
University Vita-Salute
Scientific Institute San Raffaele,
Milan, Italy

Cunha-Vaz, José Guilherme, MD, PhD
Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Coimbra, Portugal
President of the Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image
(AIBILI), Coimbra, Portugal

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