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2. Bird AC, Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Chisholm IH, Coscas G, Davis MD, de Jong PT, Klaver CC, Klein BE, Klein R, et al. An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995; 39 (5): 367-74.

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5. Jonasson F, Arnarsson A, Sasaki H, Peto T, Sasaki K, Bird AC. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy in iceland: Reykjavik eye study. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121 (3):379-85.

6. Björnsson OM, Syrdalen P, Bird AC, Peto T, Kinge B. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) in an urban Norwegian population: the Oslo Macular study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006; 84 (5): 636-41.

7. Schachat AP, Hyman L, Leske MC, Connell AM, Wu SY. Features of age-related macular degeneration in a black population. The Barbados Eye Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 1995; 113 (6): 728-35.

8. Oshima Y, Ishibashi T, Murata T, Tahara Y, Kiyohara Y, Kubota T. Prevalence of age related maculopathy in a representative Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85 (10): 1153-7

9. Kawasaki R, Wang JJ, Ji GJ, Taylor B, Oizumi T, Daimon M, Kato T, Kawata S, Kayama T, Tano Y, Mitchell P, Yamashita H, Wong TY. Prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in an adult Japanese population: the Funagata study. Ophthalmology 2008; 115 (8): 1376-81, 1381.e1-2.

10. Klein R, Klein BE, Knudtson MD, Wong TY, Cotch MF, Liu K, Burke G, Saad MF, Jacobs DR Jr. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in 4 racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Ophthalmology 2006; 113 (3): 373-80.

11. Li Y, Xu L, Wang YX, You QS, Yang H, Jonas JB. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in the adult population in China: the Beijing eye study. Am J Ophthalmol 2008; 146 (2): 329.

12. Chen SJ, Cheng CY, Peng KL, Li AF, Hsu WM, Liu JH, Chou P. Prevalence and associated risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: the Shihpai Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49 (7): 3126-33.

13. Kawasaki R, Wang JJ, Aung T, Tan DT, Mitchell P, Sandar M, Saw SM, Wong TY; Singapore Malay Eye Study Group. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a Malay population: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2008; 115 (10): 1735-41. 14. Andersen MV, Rosenberg T, la Cour M, Kiilgaard JF, Prause JU, Alsbirk PH, Borch-Johnsen K, Peto T, Carstensen B, Bird AC. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration among the inuit in Greenland. The Greenland Inuit Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2008; 115 (4): 700-707.e1. 15. Muñoz B, Klein R, Rodriguez J, Snyder R, West SK. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a population-based sample of Hispanic people in Arizona: Proyecto VER. Arch Ophthalmol 2005; 123 (11): 1575-80.

16. Varma R, Fraser-Bell S, Tan S, Klein R, Azen SP; Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology 2004; 111 (7): 1288-97.

17. Cruickshanks KJ, Hamman RF, Klein R, Nondahl DM, Shetterly SM. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy by geographic region and ethnicity. The Colorado-Wisconsin Study of Age-Related Maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115 (2): 242-50.

18. Nirmalan PK, Katz J, Robin AL, Tielsch JM, Namperumalsamy P, Kim R, Narendran V, Ramakrishnan R, Krishnadas R, Thulasiraj RD, Suan E. Prevalence of vitreoretinal disorders in a rural population of southern India: the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122 (4): 581-6.

19. Krishnan T, Ravindran RD, Murthy GVS, Vashist P, Fitzpatrick KE, Thulasiraj RD, John N, Maraini G, Camparini M, Chakravarthy U, Fletcher AE. Prevalence of early and late Age-Related Macular Degeneration in India: The INDEYE Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51: 701-707

20. Klein R, Klein BE, Knudtson MD, Meuer SM, Swift M, Gangnon RE. Fifteen-year cumulative incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2007; 114 (2): 253-62.

21. Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Lee AJ, Chia EM, Smith W, Cumming RG, Mitchell P. Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2007; 114 (1): 92-8.

22. Mukesh BN, Dimitrov PN, Leikin S, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Five-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Visual Impairment Project. Ophthalmology 2004; 111 (6): 1176-82.

23. Jonasson F, Arnarsson A, Peto T, Sasaki H, Sasaki K, Bird AC. 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy in the Reykjavik Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2005; 112 (1): 132-8.

24. Delcourt C, Lacroux A, Carrière I; POLA Study Group. The three-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the “Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age” (POLA) prospective study. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 140 (5): 924-6.

25. van Leeuwen R, Klaver CC, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, de Jong PT. The risk and natural course of age-related maculopathy: follow-up at 6 1/2 years in the Rotterdam study. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121 (4): 519-26.

26. Leske MC, Wu SY, Hennis A, Nemesure B, Yang L, Hyman L, Schachat AP; Barbados Eye Studies Group. Nine-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration in the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology 2006; 113 (1): 29-35.

27. Miyazaki M, Kiyohara Y, Yoshida A, Iida M, Nose Y, Ishibashi T. The 5-year incidence and risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46 (6): 1907-10.

28. Friedman DS, Katz J, Bressler NM, Rahmani B, Tielsch JM. Racial differences in the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration: the Baltimore Eye Survey. Ophthalmology 1999; 106 (6): 1049-55.

29. Klein R, Klein BE, Linton KL. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1992; 99 (6): 933-43.

30. Bressler SB, Muñoz B, Solomon SD, West SK; Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) Study Team. Racial differences in the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) Project. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126 (2): 241-5.

31. Klein R, Clegg L, Cooper LS, Hubbard LD, Klein BE, King WN, Folsom AR. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1999; 117 (9): 1203-10.

32. Klein R, Klein BE, Marino EK, Kuller LH, Furberg C, Burke GL, Hubbard LD. Early age-related maculopathy in the cardiovascular health study. Ophthalmology 2003; 110 (1): 25-33.

33. Mitchell P, Smith W, Attebo K, Wang JJ. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in Australia. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1995; 102 (10): 1450-60..

34. VanNewkirk MR, Nanjan MB, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Taylor HR, McCarty CA. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy: the visual impairment project. Ophthalmology 2000; 107 (8): 1593-600.

35. Vingerling JR, Dielemans I, Hofman A, Grobbee DE, Hijmering M, Kramer CF, de Jong PT. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy in the Rotterdam Study. Ophthalmology 1995; 102 (2): 205-10.

36. Delcourt C, Diaz JL, Ponton-Sanchez A, Papoz L. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration. The POLA Study. Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age. Arch Ophthalmol 1998; 116 (8): 1031-5.

37. Topouzis F, Coleman AL, Harris A, Anastasopoulos E, Yu F, Koskosas A, Pappas T, Mavroudis L, Wilson MR. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Greece: the Thessaloniki Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 142 (6): 1076-9. 5.

38. Krishnaiah S, Das T, Nirmalan PK, Nutheti R, Shamanna BR, Rao GN, Thomas R. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: findings from the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study in South India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46 (12): 4442-9.