References

1. Yannuzzi LA. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. The Macula Society Meeting. Miami, USA, February 5, 1982. 1982; 1.

2. Kleiner RC, Brucker AJ, Johnston RL. The posterior uveal bleeding syndrome. Retina 1990; 10 (1): 9-17.

3. Stern RM, Zakov ZN, Zegarra H, Gutman FA. Multiple recurrent serosanguineous retinal pigment epithelial detachments in black women. Am J Ophthalmol 1985; 100 (4): 560-569.

4. Ciardella AP, Donsoff IM, Huang SJ, Costa DL, Yannuzzi LA. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Surv Ophthalmol 2004; 49 (1): 25-37.

5 - Yannuzzi LA, Freund KB, Goldbaum M, et al.. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy masquerading as central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmology 2000;107:767–777

6- Li H, Wen F, Wu D. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in a patient with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Retina 2004;24:629–631.

7- Bartlett HM, Willoughby B, Mandava N. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in a patient with melanocytoma of the optic nerve. Retina 2001;21:396–399)

8- Mauget-Faÿsse M, Cornut PL, Quaranta El-Maftouhi M, Leys A. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in tilted disk syndrome and high myopia with staphyloma. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;142:970–975.

9- Fine HF, Ferrara DC, Ho I-V, et al.. Bilateral choroidal osteomas with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2008;2:15–17

10- Samira K, Engelbert, Michael E, Yutaka  I,  Freund, K. B. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: Simultaneous Indocyanine Green Angiography and Eye-Tracked Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings. Retina 2012;32:1057-1068

11. Wen F, Chen C, Wu D, Li H. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in elderly Chinese patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2004; 242 (8): 625-629.

12. Guyomarch J, Jean-Charles A, Acis D, Donnio A, Richer R, Merle H. Vasculopathie polypoidale choroidienne idiopathique: aspects cliniques et angiographiques. J Fr Ophtalmol 2008; 31 (6 Pt 1): 579-584.

13. Scassellati-Sforzolini B, Mariotti C, Bryan R, Yannuzzi LA, Giuliani M, Giovannini A. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Italy. Retina 2001; 21 (2): 121-125.

14. Yuzawa M, Mori R, Kawamura A. The origins of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89 (5): 602-607.

15. MacCumber MW, Dastgheib K, Bressler NM, Chan CC, Harris M, Fine S, Green WR. Clinicopathologic correlation of the multiple recurrent serosanguineous retinal pigment epithelial detachments syndrome. Retina 1994; 14 (2): 143-152.

16. Lafaut BA, Leys AM, Snyers B, et al.. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Caucasians. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2000;238:752–9.

17. Rosa RH, Jr., Davis JL, Eifrig CW. Clinicopathologic reports, case reports, and small case series: clinicopathologic correlation of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2002; 120 (4): 502-508.

18. Okubo A, Sameshima M, Uemura A, Kanda S, Ohba N. Clinicopathological correlation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy revealed by ultrastructural study. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86 (10): 1093-1098.

19. Terasaki H, Miyake Y, Suzuki T, Nakamura M, Nagasaka T. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated with macular translocation: clinical pathological correlation. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86 (3): 321-327.

20. Nakashizuka H, Mitsumata M, Okisaka S, Shimada H, Kawamura A, Mori R, Yuzawa M. Clinicopathologic findings in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49 (11): 4729-4737.

21. Okubo A, Hirakawa M, Ito M, Sameshima M, Sakamoto T. Clinical features of early and late stage polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy characterized by lesion size and disease duration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008; 246 (4): 491-499.

22. Spaide RF, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Sorenson J, Orlach DA. Indocyanine green videoangiography of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retina 1995; 15 (2): 100-110.

23. Silva RM, Figueira J, Cachulo ML, Duarte L, Faria dA, Jr., Cunha-Vaz JG. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2005; 243 (10): 973-979.

24. Yannuzzi LA, Wong DW, Sforzolini BS, Goldbaum M, Tang KC, Spaide RF, Freund KB, Slakter JS, Guyer DR, Sorenson JA, Fisher Y, Maberley D, Orlock DA. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascularized age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1999; 117 (11): 1503-1510.

25. Yannuzzi LA, Ciardella A, Spaide RF, Rabb M, Freund KB, Orlock DA. The expanding clinical spectrum of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115 (4): 478-485.

26- Cheng, Y., Huang, L., Li, X., Zhou, P., Zeng, W., Zhang, C., 2013. Genetic and functional dissection of ARMS2 in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. PLoS One 8, e53665.

27. Ahuja RM, Stanga PE, Vingerling JR, Reck AC, Bird AC. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in exudative and haemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments. Br J Ophthalmol 2000; 84 (5): 479-484.

28. Kondo N, Honda S, Kuno S, Negi A. Coding variant I62V in the complement factor H gene is strongly associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Ophthalmology 2009; 116 (2): 304-310.

29. Gotoh N, Nakanishi H, Hayashi H, Yamada R, Otani A, Tsujikawa A, Yamashiro K, Tamura H, Saito M, Saito K, Iida T, Matsuda F, Yoshimura N. ARMS2 (LOC387715) variants in Japanese patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2009; 147 (6): 1037-1041.

30- Zhang, X., Wen, F., Zuo, C., Li, M., Chen, H., Wu, K., 2011 Association of genetic variation on chromosome 9p21 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. IOVS 52, 8063-8067.

31. Gotoh N, Yamada R, Nakanishi H, Saito M, Iida T, Matsuda F, Yoshimura N. Correlation between CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 genotype to typical exudative age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy phenotype in the Japanese population. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2008; 36 (5): 437-442.

32. Kondo N, Honda S, Ishibashi K, Tsukahara Y, Negi A. Elastin gene polymorphisms in neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49 (3): 1101-1105.

33. Chen, H., Liu, K., Chen, L.J., Hou, P., Chen, W., Pang, C.P., 2012. Genetic associations in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Vis 18, 816-829.

34. Ross RD, Gitter KA, Cohen G, Schomaker KS. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm and hypertensive retinopathy. Retina 1996; 16 (2): 105-111.

35. Uyama M, Wada M, Nagai Y, Matsubara T, Matsunaga H, Fukushima I, Takahashi K, Matsumura M. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: natural history. Am J Ophthalmol 2002; 133 (5): 639-648.

36. Yang SS, Fu AD, McDonald HR, Johnson RN, Ai E, Jumper JM. Massive spontaneous choroidal hemorrhage. Retina 2003; 23 (2): 139-144.

37. Kwok AK, Lai TY, Chan CW, Neoh EL, Lam DS. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese patients. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86 (8): 892-897.

38. Klais CM, Ciardella A, Yannuzzi LA. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. In: Virgil Alfaro D, Liggett PE, Mieler WF, Quiroz-Mercado H, Jager RD, Tano Y, eds. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia, USA. Lippincott-Raven. 2006; 6: 53-63.

39. Ojima Y, Hangai M, Sakamoto A, Tsujikawa A, Otani A, Tamura H, Yoshimura N. Improved visualization of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy lesions using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retina 2009; 29 (1): 52-59.

40. Kameda T, Tsujikawa A, Otani A, Sasahara M, Gotoh N, Tamura H, Yoshimura N. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy examined with en face optical coherence tomography. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2007; 35 (7): 596-601.

41. Hikichi T, Ohtsuka H, Higuchi M, Matsushita T, Ariga H, Kosaka S, Matsushita R. Causes of macular serous retinal detachments in Japanese patients 40 years and older. Retina 2009; 29 (3): 395-404.

42. Yannuzzi LA, Sorenson J, Spaide RF, Lipson B. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV). Retina 1990; 10 (1): 1-8.

43. Ozawa S, Ishikawa K, Ito Y, Nishihara H, Yamakoshi T, Hatta Y, Terasaki H. Differences in macular morphology between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and exudative age-related macular degeneration detected by optical coherence tomography. Retina 2009; 29 (6): 793-802.

44. Moorthy RS, Lyon AT, Rabb MF, Spaide RF, Yannuzzi LA, Jampol LM. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy of the macula. Ophthalmology 1998; 105 (8): 1380-1385.

45. Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Ladas I, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, Orlock D. Indocyanine green-guided laser photocoagulation of focal spots at the edge of plaques of choroidal neovascularization. Arch Ophthalmol 1996; 114 (6): 693-697.

46. Gomez-Ulla F, Gonzalez F, Torreiro MG. Diode laser photocoagulation in idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retina 1998; 18 (5): 481-483.

47. Yuzawa M, Mori R, Haruyama M. A study of laser photocoagulation for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2003; 47 (4): 379-384.

48. Yamanishi A, Kawamura A, Yuzawa M. Laser photocoagulation for idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Jpn J Clin O 1998; 52: 1691-1694.

49. Nishijima K, Takahashi M, Akita J, Katsuta H, Tanemura M, Aikawa H, Mandai M, Takagi H, Kiryu J, Honda Y. Laser photocoagulation of indocyanine green angiographically identified feeder vessels to idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 137 (4): 770-773.

50. Mitamura Y, Kubota-Taniai M, Okada K, Kitahashi M, Baba T, Mizunoya S, Yamamoto S. Comparison of photodynamic therapy to transpupillary thermotherapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Eye (Lond) 2009; 23 (1): 67-72.

51. Gomi F, Ohji M, Sayanagi K, Sawa M, Sakaguchi H, Oshima Y, Ikuno Y, Tano Y. One-year outcomes of photodynamic therapy in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Japanese patients. Ophthalmology 2008; 115 (1): 141-146.

52. Mauget-Faysse M, Quaranta-El MM, De La ME, Leys A. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in the treatment of exudative idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2006; 16 (5): 695-704.

53. Chan WM, Lam DS, Lai TY, Liu DT, Li KK, Yao Y, Wong TH. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for symptomatic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: one-year results of a prospective case series. Ophthalmology 2004; 111 (8): 1576-1584.

54. Sayanagi K, Gomi F, Sawa M, Ohji M, Tano Y. Long-term follow-up of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy after photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007; 245 (10): 1569-1571.

55. Tsuchiya D, Yamamoto T, Kawasaki R, Yamashita H. Two-year visual outcomes after photodynamic therapy in age-related macular degeneration patients with or without polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy lesions. Retina 2009; 29 (7): 960-965.

56. Silva Leal S, Silva Rufino, Figueira J, Cachulo ML, Pires I, Faria de Abreu JR, Cunha-Vaz JG. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: Results after 3 years of follow-up. Retina 2009; in Press.

57. Lee WK, Lee PY, Lee SK. Photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: vaso-occlusive effect on the branching vascular network and origin of recurrence. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2008; 52 (2): 108-115.

58. Sayanagi K, Gomi F, Sawa M, Ohji M, Tano Y. Long-term follow-up of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy after photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007; 245 (10): 1569-1571.

59. Shiraga F, Matsuo T, Yokoe S, Takasu I, Okanouchi T, Ohtsuki H, Grossniklaus HE. Surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1999; 128 (2): 147-154.

60. Fujii GY, Pieramici DJ, Humayun MS, Schachat AP, Reynolds SM, Melia M, De Juan E Jr. Complications associated with limited macular translocation. Am J Ophthalmol 2000; 130 (6): 751-762.

61. Lai TY, Chan WM, Liu DT, Luk FO, Lam DS. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) with or without photodynamic therapy for the treatment of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2008; 92 (5): 661-666.

62. Reche-Frutos J, Calvo-Gonzalez C, Donate-Lopez J, Garcia-Feijoo J, Leila M, Garcia-Sanchez J. Short-term anatomic effect of ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2008; 18 (4): 645-648.

63. Reche-Frutos J, Calvo-Gonzalez C, Donate-Lopez J, Garcia-Feijoo J, Leila M, Garcia-Sanchez J. Short-term anatomic effect of ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2008; 18 (4): 645-648.

64. http://www.4-traders.com/QLT-INC-10600/news/QLT-INC-6-month-results-from.... Accessed March 31, 2010.

65- Lai, T.Y., Lam, C.P., Luk, F.O., Chan, R.P., Chan, W.M., Liu, D.T., Lam, D.S., 2010. Photodynamic therapy with or without intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for symptomatic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 26, 91-95.

66- Ricci, F., Calabrese, A., Regine, F., Missiroli, F., Ciardella, A.P., 2012. Combined reduced fluence photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retina 32, 1280-1288.

67- Yoshida, Y., Kohno, T., Yamamoto, M., Yoneda, T., Iwami, H., Shiraki, K., 2013  Two-year results of reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for typical agerelated macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Jpn J Ophthamol 57, 283.

68- Koh et al. (Koh, A.H., Chen, L.J., Chen, S.J., Chen, Y., Giridhar, A., Iida, T., Kim, H., Yuk Yau Lai, T., Lee, W.K., Li, X., Han Lim, T., Ruamviboonsuk, P., Sharma, T., Tang, S., Yuzawa, M., on behalf of the Expert, P.C.V.P., 2013.

69- Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Retina 33, 686-716. Koh et al., 2013.