References

1. Murphy RP, Yeo JH, Green WR, et al. Dehiscences of the pigment epithelium. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1985;83:63-81.

2. Gass JD. Pathogenesis of disciform detachment of the neuroepithelium. Am J Ophthalmol 1967;63(Suppl):S1–S139.

3. Anderson DH, Mullins RF, Hageman GS, et al. A role for local inflammation in the formation of drusen in the aging eye. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134:411-31.

4. Hutchinson AK, Grossniklaus HE, Capone A. Giant-cell reaction in surgically excised subretinal neovascular membrane. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:734-5.

5. Oh H, Takagi H, Takagi C, et al. The potential angiogenic role of macrophages in the formation of choroidal neovascular membranes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:1891-8.

6. Hartnett ME, Weiter JJ, Garsd A, et al. Classification of retinal pigment epithelial detachments associated with drusen. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1992;230:11-9.

7. Kuhn D, Meunier I, Soubrane G, et al. Imaging of chorioretinal anastomoses in vascularized retinal pigment epithelium detachments. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113:1392-8.

8. Slakter JS, Yannuzzi LA, Schneider U, et al. Retinal choroidal anastomoses and occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 2000;107:742-53, discussion 753-4.

9. Green WR, McDonnell PJ, Yeo JH. Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 1985;92:615-27.

10. Casswell AG, Kohen D, Bird AC. Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly: classification and outcome. Br J Ophthalmol 1985;69:397-403.

11. Yannuzzi LA. Retinal pigment epithelial detachment, in Yannuzzi LA (ed): Laser Photocoagulation of the Macula. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1989, pp 49-63.

12. Gass JD. Serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment with a notch. A sign of occult choroidal neovascularization. Retina 1984;4:205-20.

13. Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, et al. Digital indocyanine green videoangiography and choroidal neovascularization. Retina 1992;12:191-223.

14. Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, et al. Digital indocyanine-green videoangiography of occult choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmology 1994;101:1727-35, discussion 1735-7.

15. Yannuzzi LA, Hope-Ross M, Slakter JS, et al. Analysis of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments using indocyanine green videoangiography. Retina 1994;14:99-113.

16. Flower RW, Csaky KG, Murphy RP. Disparity between fundus camera and scanning laser ophthalmoscope indocyanine green imaging of retinal pigment epithelium detachments. Retina 1998;18:260-8.

17. Cohen SY, Creuzat-Garcher C, Darmon J, et al. Types of choroidal neovascularisation in newly diagnosed exudative age-related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91: 1173-1176.

18. Wolf S, Remky A, Elsner AE, et al. Indocyanine green video angiography in patients with age-related maculopathy-related retinal pigment epithelial detachments. Ger J Ophthalmol 1994;3:224-7.

19. Parodi MB, Iacono P, Papayannis A, Kontadakis SD, Cascavilla M, Pierro L, Gagliardi M, Bandello F. Intravitreal ranibizumab for pigment epithelium detachment with subfoveal occult choroidal neovascularization: a prospective 24-month case series. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(1):103-108.

20. Yannuzzi LA, Negrao S, Iida T, et al. Retinal angiomatous proliferation in age-related macular degeneration. Retina 2001; 21:416–434.

21. Gass JDM, Agarwal A, Lavina AM, et al. Focal inner retinal hemorrhages in patients with drusen. An early sign of occult choroidal neovascularization and chorioretinal anastomosis. Retina 2003; 23:741–751.

22. Freund KB, Ho IV, Barbazetto IA, et al. Type 3 neovascularization: the expanded spectrum of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Retina 2008;28(2):201-11.

23. Axer-Siegel R, Bourla D, Priel E, Yassur Y, Weinberger D. Angiographic and flow patterns of retinal choroidal anastomoses in age-related macular degeneration with occult choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmology 2002;109: 1726-1736.

24. Yannuzzi LA, Wong DW, Sforzolini BS, et al. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascularized age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:1503–1510.

25. Yannuzzi LA, Ciardella A, Spaide RF. The expanding clinical spectrum of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1997;115:478–85.

26. Spaide RF, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS. Indocyanine green videoangiography of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retina 1995;15:100–10.

27. Sato T, Iida T, Hagimura N, et al. Correlation of optical coherence tomography with angiography in retinal pigment epithelial detachment associated with age-related macular degeneration. Retina 2004;24:910-4.

28. Coscas F, Coscas G, Souied E, et al. Optical coherence tomography identification of occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;144:592–599.

29. Coscas G. Optical coherence tomography in age-related macular degeneration. (ed) Springer Medizin Verlag Heildelberg 2009: pp 201-203.

30. Brancato R, Introini U, Pierro L, et al. Optical coherence tomography in Retinal angiomatous proliferation Eur J Ophthalmol 2002; 12:467-472.

31. Coscas G. Optical coherence tomography in age-related macular degeneration. (ed) Springer Medizin Verlag Heildelberg 2009: pp 277-279.

32. Iijima H, Imai M, Gohdo T, Tsukahara S. Optical coherence tomography of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;127:301–305.

33. Otsuji T, Takahashi K, Fukushima I, Uyama M. Optical coherence tomographic findings of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 2000;31:210-214.

34. Klein ML, Obertynski H, Patz A, et al. Follow-up study of detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:412-6.

35. Pauleikhoff D, Loeffert D, Spital G, et al. Pigment epithelial detachment in the elderly. Clinical differentiation, natural course and pathogenetic implications. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2002;240:533–538.

36. Bird AC, Marshall J. Retinal pigment epithelial detachments in the elderly. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1986;105:674-82.

37. Gass JD. Pathogenesis of tears of the retinal pigment epithelium. Br J Ophthalmol 1984;68:513-9.

38. Lafaut BA, Aisenbrey S, Vanden Broecke C, et al. Clinicopathological correlation of retinal pigment epithelial tears in exudative age related macular degeneration: pretear, tear, and scarred tear. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85:454-60.

39. Zayit-Soudry S, Moroz I, Loewenstein A. Retinal pigment epithelial detachment. Surv Ophthalmol 2007; 52(3):227-243.

40. Hoskin A, Bird AC, Sehmi K. Tears of detached retinal pigment epithelium. Br J Ophthalmol 1981;65:417-22.

41. Giovannini A, Amato G, Mariotti C, et al. Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of retinal pigment epithelial tear. Retina 2000;20:37–40.

42. Coscas G, Koenig F, Soubrane G. The pretear characteristics of pigment epithelial detachments. A study of 40 eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108:1687–169.

43. Chang LK, Sarraf D. Tears of the retinal pigment epithelium: an old problem in a new era. Retina 2007;27(5):523–534.

44. Nagiel A, Freund KB, Spaide RF, Munch IC, Larsen M, Sarraf D. Mechanism of retinal pigment epithelium tear formation following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy revealed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(5):981–988.e982.

45. Doguizi S, Ozdek S. Pigment epithelial tears associated with anti-VEGF therapy: incidence, long-term visual outcome, and relationship with pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration. Retina 2014;34(6):1156–1162.

46. Clemens CR, Bastian N, Alten F, Milojcic C, Heiduschka P, Eter N. Prediction of retinal pigment epithelial tear in serous vascularized pigment epithelium detachment. Acta Ophthalmol 2014;92(1):e50–56.

47. Gass JD. Retinal pigment epithelial rip during krypton red laser photocoagulation. Am J Ophthalmol 1984;98:700-6.

48. Pece A, Introini U, Bottoni F, et al. Acute retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy. Retina 2001;21:661-5.

49. Gelisken F, Inhoffen W, Partsch M, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tear after photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131:518-20.

50. Michels S, Aue A, Simader C, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium tears following verteporfin therapy combined with intravitreal triamcinolone. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141:396–398.

51. Dhalla MS, Blinder KJ, Tewari A, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal pegaptanib sodium. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 141(4): 752–754.

52. Nicolo M, Ghiglione D, Calabria G. Retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin). Eur J Ophthalmol 2006;17:770–773.

53. Weinberger AW, Thiel M, Mohammadi B, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium tears after intravitreal bevacizumab in pigment epithelium detachment. Am J Ophthalmol 2007; 144(2): 294–296.

54. Lee GKY, Lai TYY, Chan WM, Lam DSC. Retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal ranibizumab injections for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007; 245(8): 1225-7.

55. Carvounis PE, Kopel AC, Benz MS. Retinal pigment epithelium tears following ranibizumab for exudative agerelated macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143: 504–505.

56. Bakri SJ, Kitzmann AS. Retinal pigment epithelial tear after intravitreal ranibizumab. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:505–507.

57. Chang LK, Sarraf D. Tears of the retinal pigment epithelium. An old problem in a new era. Retina 2007; 27: 523-34.

58. Introini U, Torres Gimeno A, Scotti F, Setaccioli M, Giatsidis S, Bandello F. Vascularized retinal pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: treatment and RPE tear incidence. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2012 Sep;250(9):1283-92.

59. Meyer CH, Toth CA. Retinal pigment epithelial tear with vitreomacular traction: a novel pathogenic feature. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001;239:325–333.

60. Bressler NM, Finklestein D, Sunness JS, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tears through the fovea with preservation of good visual acuity. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108:1694-7.

61. Chang B, Yannuzzi LA, Ladas ID, et al. Choroidal neovascularization in second eyes of patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 1995;102:1380-6.

62. Yannuzzi LA. [Retinal pigment epithelial detachment]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1989;12:761-74.

63. Brancato R, Introini U, Bolognesi G, et al. ICGA-guided laser photocoagulation of occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Retina 2000;20:134-42.

64. Goldstein M, Heilweil G, Barak A, Loewenstein A. Retinal pigment epithelial tear following photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD. Eye 2005; 19(12):1315–1324.

65. Axer-Siegel R, Ehrlich R, Avisar I, et al. Combined photodynamic therapy and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for neovascular age-related macular degeneration with pigment epithelium detachment. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2006; 37(6):455–461.

66. Lai TY, Chan WM, Liu DT, Lam DS. Ranibizumab for retinal angiomatous proliferation in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007; 245(12):1877–1880.

67. Meyerle CB, Freund KB, Iturralde D, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for retinal angiomatous proliferation. Retina 2007; 27(4):451–457.

68. Kook D, Wolf A, Neubauer AS, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tears after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for AMD. Frequency and progress. Ophthalmologe 2008; 105(2):158–164.

69. Lommatzsch A, Heimes B, Gutfleisch M, et al. Serous pigment Epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: comparison of different treatments. Eye 2009; 23(12):2163-8.

70. Waldstein SM, Simader C, Staurenghi G, et al. Morphology and Visual Acuity in Aflibercept and Ranibizumab Therapy for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the VIEW Trials. Ophthalmology 2016;123(7):1521-9.

71. He L, Silva RA, Moshfeghi DM, et al. Aflibercept for the treatment of retinal pigment epithelial detachments. Retina 2016;36:492–498.

72. de Massougnes S, Dirani A, Ambresin A, Decugis D, Marchionno L, Mantel I. Pigment epithelial detachment response to aflibercept in neovascular age-related macular degeneration refractory to ranibizumab: Time Course and Drug Effects. Retina 2016;36(5):881-8.

73. Kumar N, Marsiglia M, Mrejen S, et al. Visual and anatomical outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept in eyes with persistent subfoveal fluid despite previous treatments with ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Retina 2013;33:1605–1612.

74. Patel KH, Chow CC, Rathod R, et al. Rapid response of retinal pigment epithelial detachments to intravitreal aflibercept in neovascular age-related macular degeneration refractory to bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Eye (Lond) 2013;27:663–667.

75. Dirani A, Ambresin A, Marchionno L, Decugis D, Mantel I. Factors Influencing the Treatment Response of Pigment Epithelium Detachment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2015;160(4):732-8.

76. Cho HJ, Kim KM, Kim HS, Lee DW, Kim CG, Kim JW. Response of Pigment Epithelial Detachment to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;166:112-9.

77. Sarraf D, London NJ, Khurana RN, et al. Ranibizumab Treatment for Pigment Epithelial Detachment Secondary to Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Post Hoc Analysis of the HARBOR Study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(10):2213-24.

78. Chen X, Al-Sheikh M, Chan CK, et al. Type 1 versus type 3 neovascularization in pigment epithelial detachments associated with age-related macular degeneration after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy: A Prospective Study. Retina 2016;36 Suppl 1:S50-S64.